Meaning: four

Represented in 159 languages with 4 cognate sets.

Illustrative Context

Four plus one is five.

Target Sense
  • The default numeral four, as used when referring to inanimate objects.
  • Avoid the noun form for a group of four, e.g. foursome, quartet, or for a ‘number four’ (e.g. a bus).
  • Avoid any different terms used specifically when referring to humans or other animates.
  • Avoid terms specific to counting up or down, if different, e.g. in Irish, or in Russian where the lexeme for IE CoR one is odin, not raz (used when counting up).

  • In some languages, the same word root for the numeral four can take different grammatical forms.

    • In languages that have gender, give the common or masculine form.
    • In languages that have a contrasting emphatic form, avoid this and give the non-emphatic form.
  • See also the target sense definitions for all five lowest numerals covered in IE-CoR: one, two, three, four, five.

Cognate sets for meaning: four

Id <span style="white-space:nowrap;">IE-CoR ref. form&nbsp;</span> <span style="white-space:nowrap;">IE-CoR ref. lang.&nbsp;</span> # clades # lexemes loan? pll loan? pll deriv.? ideoph.? loan src lang. src lex cogset. Details

Lexeme Details

Language Lexeme Phonetic Phonemic Cognate set loan? pll loan? Source lang